How do Solar Street Lights Generate Electricity?

With the continuous development of photovoltaic technology, solar street lights are becoming more and more common in our lives. solar street lights are outdoor lighting fixtures that uses sunlight as an energy source. There is no need to dig pipes and lay cables, which saves electricity costs. Solar panels absorb solar energy during the day, and the light energy is converted into electrical energy, which is then stored by the rechargeable battery. At night, the battery provides electrical energy for the light source to illuminate the cities and rural areas. So how do solar street lights convert sunlight into electrical energy through solar panels for storage? In this process, which configurations are involved? Let’s take a look at it in detail.

1. The working principle of solar panels

solar street lights can generate electricity mainly by using the photovoltaic effect of semiconductor materials, which can convert solar light radiation into electrical energy. Solar panels are composed of two different semiconductors, N-type and P-type. The junction between them is called P-N junction. When the solar panel receives light, in this P-N junction, electrons are released due to light energy, and corresponding electron-hole pairs are generated. The holes of the N-type semiconductor will move to the P-type, and the electrons in the P-type region will forget the movement of the N-type region, forming a current from the N-type region to the P-type region. When the external circuit is connected, there will be Electricity is output.

2. solar street light power generation configuration

solar street lights are mainly composed of solar panels, controllers, batteries and other accessories. So what role do these accessories play in the street lighting process?

Solar panel

The solar panel is the core component of the street lamp, and its function is to convert light energy into electric energy, and then send it to the storage battery for storage, which is convenient for night lighting or to promote the work of the load.


Lead-acid batteries were commonly used in the past, but now they are gradually being replaced by lithium iron phosphate batteries. The storage battery needs to store the solar energy absorbed by the solar panels during the day as much as possible on the premise of satisfying the lighting at night. At the same time, it must be able to store the electric energy that can meet the lighting needs of continuous rainy days at night. The battery capacity is too small to meet the needs of night lighting, the capacity is too large, the battery will always be in a state of power loss, affect the service life, and cause waste. Therefore, when we configure solar street lights, we must configure them according to the actual conditions of use and the local climate in order to meet the lighting needs of users.


The full name is the solar charge and discharge controller, and we can understand its function from this name. The controller is used to control the working status of the entire solar street light system. It also plays a role in protecting the battery from overcharging and overdischarging. Its performance directly affects the service life of solar street lights, especially the service life of batteries. When sunlight hits the solar panel, the solar panel will charge the battery. Simultaneously, the controller will automatically detect the charging voltage, and output voltage to the solar lamp, so that the solar street light will light up.

Simply put, solar street lights absorb solar energy through solar panels, store them in the battery, and then the controller issues commands to the battery to supply power to the street lights. solar street lights are energy-saving, environmentally friendly, safe and convenient, and can bring long-term benefits. If you have more questions about solar street lights, feel free to contact us.

Solar Street Lights

As shown in the picture, Zenith Lighting is a Professional manufacturer of all kinds of street lights, if you have any inquiry or project, please do not hesitate to contact with us.

Post time: Sep-19-2023